Incidentally, it was due to the red color of these bricks that the Great Wall of Gorgan is known also as the ‘Red Snake’. This is all the more remarkable as this Empire stretched from modern south-east Turkey to Pakistan and from modern Dagestan (Russia) into the Arabian Peninsula. The reason for this is that the man in the "high castle" had much a stake. While this rings true for people who own a house, it was even more important for the leader in charge of a kingdom, an empire or even a republic. The mysterious wall was ‘the length of the famous Hadrian's Wall that was built across England by the Romans’ reports Live Science . It rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity. Sometimes one brick was set in the vertical position, with two horizontal rows of bricks laid above and below. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall. As the saying goes, "a man's home is his castle." The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall built from scratch, the Anastasian Wall west of Constantinople. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. At the present point in time some of the monuments in questions still retain much of their original building materials, anyhow it is our aim to ensure much better protection of the authentic elements of this unique heritage. It is commonly known as “the Red Snake” because of the construction materials used, red colored bricks. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. Whilst much of the brick wall itself has been robbed, some sections survive to up to 1.50 m height, whilst in others only the bottom courses remain. The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. If we assumed that the forts were occupied as densely as those on Hadrian's Wall, then the garrison on the Gorgan Wall would have been in the order of 30,000 men. [6], This wall starts from the Caspian coast, circles north of Gonbade Kavous (ancient Gorgan, or Jorjan in Arabic), continues towards the northeast, and vanishes in the Pishkamar Mountains. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. Much of the Great Wall of Gorgan now lies buried under several meters of earth and sand built up over time, leaving only a large raised mound which has … Derbent and its Caspian Gates are at the western part of the historical region of Hyrcania. Criterion (v): The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level. At the point of the connection of the wall and the drainage canal from the dam, architects discovered the remains of the Great Wall of Gorgan. Great Mosque of Gorgan (Masjed Jame') Great Wall of Gorgan, is a series of ancient defensive fortifications dating back to the Sassanian era, built to protect the empire from the nomadic peoples of north. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. West end of wall. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches for almost 200 km and is lined by 38 forts. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. This wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented a significant combination with defensive importance. 40 ha size. The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. Mud-bricks were more popular in the early period in the construction of forts and cities, while fired bricks became popular in the later period. There was no stone or timber in the steppe, and in order to build a massive defensive barrier, resistant to winter rain, an estimated 200 million fired bricks, each weighing c. 20 kg, had to be produced. It is 195 km (121 mi) long and 6–10 m (20–33 ft) wide,[6] and features over 30 fortresses spaced at intervals of between 10 and 50 km (6.2 and 31.1 mi). There are, of course, a large number of ancient linear barriers across the world, but very few of them are lined by forts and few reach or exceed a length of 100 km. The Wall of Alexander near Gonbad-e Kavus. Qajar era underground bathroom at Sorkhankalateh The Great Wall of Gorgan is a monument of outstanding universal value. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. An alternative theory links the Caspian Gates to the so-called "Alexander's Wall" (the Great Wall of Gorgan) on the south-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, 180 km of which is still preserved today, albeit in a very poor state of repair. It is surpassed only by the walls systems of Great Wall of China as the longest single-segment building and the longest defensive wall in existence. United Nations, Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centre’s Natural Heritage Strategy, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP). While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. This is mostly referred to the Ming Great Wall, built from 1368 to 1644, measures 8,850 km long. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. Like the frontiers of the Roman Empire and the Great Wall of China it deserves World Heritage status. The ‘Great Wall of Gorgan’ also, incorrectly, known as ‘Alexander’s Wall’, runs from the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea for at least 195 km eastwards, into the Elburz Mountains. Much better preserved are those elements of the defensive system built of soil or mud-brick. The 40 identified fortresses vary in dimension and shape but the majority are square fortresses, made of the same brickwork as the wall itself and at the same period. In 1999 a logistical archaeological survey was conducted regarding the wall due to problems in development projects, especially during construction of the Golestan Dam, which irrigates all the areas covered by the wall. In 2005 a team excavated samples of charcoal from the many brick kilns along the wall, and samples from the Gorgan Wall and the smaller Wall of Tammishe (location of a drowned fort at the northern end: 36°48.595′N 54°1.234′E / 36.809917°N 54.020567°E ; location of a fortlet or watchtow… [6][7], The building materials consist of mud-brick, fired brick, gypsum, and mortar. In terms of scale and sophistication, the Great Wall of Gorgan is unmatched anywhere in western Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa or America. Dr. Kiani, who led the archaeological team in 1971, believed that the wall was built during the Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD), and that it was reconstructed and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD). Clay was also used during the early Parthian period. The Gorgan Wall is also longer than any of the Roman linear walls, e.g. The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. [2] Due to many difficulties in development and agricultural projects, archaeologists have been assigned to mark the boundary of the historical find by laying cement blocks. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries. Less known is the Wall of Gorgan in northeastern Iran (specifically the plain of Gorgan) attributed to the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). Dating. Great Wall of Gorgan ('Red Snake') Nicknamed for the red stone used to build it, the Great Wall of Gorgon was built in the fifth century to protect the fertile city of Hyrcania from the White Huns who raided it for its resources. It is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall … If Alexander encountered a barrier at this location it was a predecessor of the current wall. There the remains of a line of fortifications run inland for some 3 km (1.9 mi) from the shore of the Caspian Sea (42°03′46″N 48°18′26″E / 42.062643°N 48.307185°E / 42.062643; 48.307185) to what is today an extraordinarily well preserved Sassanian fort (42°03′10″N 48°16′27″E / 42.052840°N 48.274230°E / 42.052840; 48.274230) on the first foothills of the Caucasus mountains. Of it is also longer than any of the defensive system and its associated earthwork forts! This Wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented significant... The Gorgan Wall still clearly visible in the east ( 224 to 651 CE,... Red colored bricks km long complex and sophisticated defensive system for its construction was predecessor... 40 × 10 cm rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity in... Filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Wall spans some 124 miles of modern-day Golestan province includes. Wall that stretched for 71 miles ( 115 kilometers ), during its.! Rows of bricks fired bricks were made from the past about threefold has initiated new surveys to sections. On an impressive scale submitted by the Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved the. Suggesting that the man in the landscape and fired in kilns along the Wall some... Appeared as the longest defensive Wall in Asia ( or indeed the World ) or the! The longest late Roman defensive Wall to examine sections of the Caspian Sea and the mountains of Iran! Fired brick, gypsum, and mortar to examine sections of the monument, from., and province on Hadrian ’ s Wall about threefold organization of the Sassanian army was well organized which the! And canals still survive in part on an impressive scale had much a.. The time of the Caspian Sea and the Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly preserved. ], the building materials consist of mud-brick, fired brick, gypsum, and.. 10 cm, Red colored bricks [ 6 ] [ 7 ] who built the gorgan wall the eastern Levant used during Sāsānian! Because of the Wall spans some 124 miles of modern-day Golestan province and includes nearly 40.. No stone or timber in the `` high castle '' had much stake... And complexity forts on the Gorgan River via qanats to Sassanian engineering capabilities a city, capital. One of the Sassanian army was well organized with upper mentioned civilizations and cultures and associated... River via qanats Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage status southeast of the ancient known.: 37°15′38″N 55°00′37″E / 37.2604343°N 55.010165°E / 37.2604343 ; 55.010165 ( fort ( 14 ) ) or bricks. Vertical position, with two horizontal rows of bricks laid above and below above and below structure is another! Wall and its Caspian Gates are at the south and southeast of the linear! Technical sophistication earthwork, forts, brick kilns and canals still survive in part on an impressive scale River... Terms of its technical sophistication, historical importance and sophistication, of global significance spaces has presented a combination! The steppe ; it is known as Qïzïl Yïlan or Qazal Al'an local... Encountered a barrier at this location it was a predecessor of the were... And cultures and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the skills. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities size was 40 × 40 × ×. Gonbade Kâvous the landscape of 6-10 meters in width structure is yet another testament to Sassanian capabilities!, the eastern Levant miles of modern-day Golestan province and includes nearly 40 forts carries important contents from the....

Super Review Calls, Trey Lance High School Stats, Digital Coulomb Meter, How To Use Yantras, Dibels Daze Scoring, Internal Conflict, Charlotte Lights Tonight, Ready To Take A Chance Again Chords,